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10 Research Based Studies or Articles: Support of Adaptions

  • To Adapt or Not - Make adaptions that make core principles of the content (ex. comprehension) easy to implement. Finding the perfect balance of adaptions depends on the context – the student, the teacher, values, resources, and more.
  • Systematically Applying UDL - Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a common educational framework that is based in research. UDL utilized scaffolding and educational flexibility to help meet individual student’s needs. Most students diagnosed with a learning disability spend 80% or more of their school day in the general education setting. There are many ways to adapt for students with learning disabilities.
  • Inquiry Based Science Adaptions - This article focuses on science instruction and adaptions utilized. The five essential features are detailed – (1) questioning, (2) evidence, (3) construction explanations, (4) comparing explanations, and (5) communication expectations. Students help create questions and are given multiple experiences with the topic (ex. videos, pictures, readings, personal experience).
  • In an Age of Accountability- This study looked at two aspects of adaptions: (1) the evidence behind the adaptations and (2) why the adaptions were made. Commonly found was pressures put on teachers to adapt from district reforms and/or adaptions deemed necessary to meet student needs. No matter the experience or school, teachers see the need for curriculum adaption and teachers work as hard as they can meet the needs of and what is best for their students.
  • From Different to Differentiated - This is a brief article is about the mental shift in language of Special Education. With the use of an Ecological Framework – the power of words can make a difference. Language makes decisions on curriculum and placement of students in special education.
  • Development Use Curricular Adaptations - There are many different aspects to consider when it comes to making adaptions. Many common and simple adaptions put into action by the teachers. Availability of resources plays a major role in which adaptions are utilized and how often. Most educators felt confident that the adaptions were effective in their classroom.
  • Creativity Took Over - It is rare for educators to implement curriculum as set. Almost all educators adapt their curriculum to their students. A feeling ownership occurs when educators adapt to the need. Results yielded that created productive adaptions is rather difficult but can worked toward.
  • Adaptions Gen Ed Students Severe - This study looked at adaptations utilized by general educators and special educators in general education setting – science, social studies, and language arts. The two most important aspects being (1) access to the general education setting and (2) frequently assessing progress. Many times, IEP goals are aligned to grade level content/curriculum/standards, which allows for access to the content. Peer learning and ownership of individual learning are both very important when adapting curriculum.
  • Adapting Mathematics Disabilities - There is a small percent of students who take alternate assessments due to a significant cognitive and/or physically disability. The National Center and State Collaborative (NCSC) created an intense set of adaptive Curriculum & Instruction for math – online module (perimeter, volume, and area) and MASSI (measurement and geometry). These sets provided the teachers with resources to teach the math content. The module allowed for a 90% likelihood of teaching this content with adaptions.
  • Adapting the Sport Education Model for Children with Disabilities - This article discusses the Sports Education Model (SEM) – adaptions made for students with disabilities in P.E. This model is student driven and each student plays a specified role. Several adaptions are listed - use of a larger or smaller sized ball, coach, scorekeeper, equipment manager, and more.